"When seconds count, the police are only minutes away."
IF YOU HAVE TO CHOOSE ONLY ONE WEAPON -
THE BEST HOME DEFENSE .410 SHOTGUN?
.410 BORE SHOT SHELL AMMO
- HANDGUNS FOR SELF DEFENSE
THE LOWLY .22 LR RIMFIRE FOR HOME DEFENSE?
Survival Reloading page
for information on reloading centerfire cartridge cases
new era of Obama-created ammo, component and equipment shortages
New Page -
Using Lyman 310 Tong
Tools for Reloading
We are no longer naive. We will need to defend our homes, indeed our very
lives, from now into the future. Only call 911 for an antidote for poison.
The status quo is that the bad guys are there and gone before the police can
even respond. All they can do is take information for the next of kin. Besides,
the Supreme Court has already ruled that police have a duty to the community
at large, not to any one individual. That's right - the police have
"No Affirmative Duty to Protect" us,
affirmed by many court decisions! When your home experiences an
"home invasion," try defending yourself with your kid’s baseball
bat against bad guys armed with AK-47's.
America is polarized with political opposites no longer
able to compromise, with a huge influx of illegal aliens, etc. Throw in the
possibility of a banking meltdown, trucker strike or wide-spread terrorist
"events" creating food shortages, and civility can be quickly lost.
Assault by one side can only be met with bold defense – or subjugation – on
the other side. The result? Anarchy. It will happen. And when it happens, will
you be able to defend yourself?
PERSONAL DEFENSE IS NOT THE
SAME AS HOME DEFENSE. Personal defense means
always having the means to defend yourself available at all times.
The North American Arms mini revolver in .22 LR shown at right only
weighs 4 ounces, but 5 rounds of hollow points are better than a sharp
stick anytime! Sure, a .45 auto is vastly superior to a .22 in
battle, but personal defense often comes down to a knife versus a
gun...and a gun wins every time, particularly if the handgun is readily
available. The excellent Multi-Purpose carry case can hold a mini
.22 and some ammo in a belt case that does not appear to be a holster.
Available at my Survival Shop.
IF YOU HAVE TO CHOOSE ONLY ONE WEAPON
FOR HOME DEFENSE.....
Pepper sprays and slingshots will work just fine to
infuriate an enemy...might as well build a catapult and hurl your stored food,
and when that runs out, fling them your wife and kids. So ultimately, we’re
talking guns for home defense.
(NOTE: What I am going to say about firearms is for
defensive use, not offensive use, and within the narrow view of
only - the purpose of this article. This is not to say that other weapons
would not be very useful for other purposes, or that other weapons could not
be used for Home Defense! This narrow definition is being written for those who do NOT
already own firearms, and only wish one (1) weapon for Home Defense only.
Personally, I believe the more, the merrier. The lowly .22 Long Rifle is
incredibly useful for survival, as are the newer spring-powered air rifles
that can attain 1000 fps in .17 caliber. But "survival" is not the same
The primary object in home defense is to hit the target while avoiding such power and penetration
that unintended victims are not hit. Obviously, if you are familiar with and
have firearms, you are going to use what you have. But if you don’t have a
firearm and are going to buy one (1) for home defense, I recommend a shotgun.
But not just any shotgun. Most common shotguns are 12 gauge waterfowl guns
with long, full choke barrels. They are unwieldy in confined spaces, more
powerful than required, overly noisy in confined spaces, and "kick"
too much for novice shooters.
A 12 gauge "riot" shotgun fired in a
house produces an incredibly deafening blast!
Twelve gauge "riot" shotguns with folding stocks are a
particular problem with the stock unfolded. The hard synthetic stock is straight
or slightly raised toward the front, not sloped downward toward the action.
When the shotgun is fired, the shotgun raises in recoil, and the hard
synthetic stock seems to jump straight up into your cheekbone with a teeth
rattling jolt. A softer cheek piece is needed, and it should be black or
dark grey to match the stock and sturdy closed cell foam, so it will not hold
water. The answer? Water pipe insulation tubing! The tubing
is 3/8" thick foam, so it is thin enough to allow the stock to fold in the
normal manner, yet thick enough to provide some cushioning from the brutal
recoil when used unfolded.
At left is a 4" long piece of 3/4" pipe insulation
glued to the top of the folding butt stock using "Household Goop."
A channel was cut out of the round pipe insulation (as shown) for a good
fit. The 3/8" insulation makes a soft cheek piece, the shotgun can be
fired without the feeling your teeth are going to rattle loose, and the
stock still folds up tight against the action.
As women and older children could be using this home defense shotgun, bulk,
weight, recoil and noise are definitely factors to consider. Thus, a .410 bore shotgun
is a great choice. A 3 inch .410 shot shell fires 3/4 ounce of shot at 1100
feet per second, resulting in approximately 800 foot pounds of energy at the
muzzle, and a 2 ½" .410 with ½ ounce of shot produces approximately 600 foot
pounds at the muzzle. The delivered energy at the defense ranges considered
here are greater than a .357 Magnum revolver cartridge, but the longer barrel
and greater weight of the shotgun results in less than half the noise and
recoil. More important, the shot pattern is about 8 inches in diameter at
20 feet (full choke), and does not generally penetrate a wall, whereas a .357 Mag
bullet pierces walls easily...and unintended victims on the other side.
In the close confines of home defense, a small dot laser
light has limited usefulness. I mounted a 1" tube light with 8
super-bright LED's and a tail button switch. In the dark, the LED
light is more than enough...if the target is lit up, it will be hit. The
nice wide, non-marring clamp is model #SMC-1100 from
(There are those who will claim that the lowly .410 shot
shell is too underpowered, even less than a .357 Magnum revolver. They are
making their judgment based on recoil - comparing a .357 Magnum revolver
versus a .410
shotgun. Bad comparison, as a full length shotgun is heavier and held by two
hands. I've got a .45 Colt/.410 derringer: recoil with a 2 1/2" .410 is
extremely heavy, far worse than with a .357 Magnum derringer, and stronger
than with the .45 Colt; recoil with a full length 3" Magnum .410 shot shell is
fearsome enough to make just hanging onto the derringer extremely difficult.
That recoil is easily tamed by the weight and length of a .410 shotgun.)
Of course home defense means more than defense against two legged creature.
In any breakdown of civilization, a weapon like a shotgun becomes critical.
Pet dogs are abandoned, join in packs and quickly become feral. They can, and
do, attack domestic animals, pets, and are even a danger to children.
can get into a chicken coop and kill a flock very quickly. Rabid dogs are not
uncommon in a societal disaster. These must be dispatched quickly, yet they
are a moving target and hard to hit. This is where a shotgun really shines, as
the pattern of shot is easier to put on target than a single bullet fired by
someone shaking under extreme anxiety and stress, and repeat shots are more
likely to put additional pellets into the target zone. A .410 bore, 3" magnum
with #4 pellets is up to the task -- at reasonable ranges. Don't think these
are 100 yard range weapons!
Hunting for food may well be necessary in the future. Small birds such as
quail can be taken with a 2 ½" .410, larger birds with a 3" magnum, and game
up to deer (at fairly close ranges) taken with a .410 slug load.
THE BEST HOME DEFENSE .410 SHOTGUN?
One excellent .410 bore shotgun for home defense was
actually designed specifically for that task...wonder of wonders. The Mossberg
HS410 (the "HS" an acronym for "Home Security", model #50359) is a 6 shot pump
action shotgun with an 18 ½" barrel having a spreader choke, ideal for close
action shooting in home defense situations. The stock is synthetic and the
right length of pull for women and older children (but still works with large
men), the action extremely rugged and reliable, and the short length makes it
very handy in confined spaces. The price? About $360.00 in 2005.
Discontinued, but well worth the effort to find a used one.
The Mossberg 500 Field .410 Pump-Action Shotgun
can be found for about $250.00 and may be the best available pump .410
shotgun available at the price. Mossberg shotguns are
renowned for reliability.
Now there is another excellent .410 bore shotgun on the
market which may well be as good as or better than the Mossberg HS410 - the
SAIGA .410 SHOTGUN. The cost of the Saiga ranged from $400.00 to $585.00 in
April, 2012. It is an adaptation of the Kalashnikov designed
AK-47 designed to fire .410 Magnum shot shells, has a semi-automatic action,
and it comes with two magazines. With its 19" barrel, it would be handy
in confined places, and it also comes with two choke tubes, increasing its
versatility. The rate of fire would be better than with the Mossberg, and
reliability is reportedly extremely high, but as with everything there are
other factors to consider: A semi-auto action is less tolerant of loads
than a slide action such as the Mossberg, so reloading for the Saiga requires
more care and testing to be certain of reliable feeding. More
information on the Saiga .410 shotgun can be found online from dealers such as
Bud's Gun Shop.
An additional .410 shotgun which some may want to consider
is the Winchester lever action 9410, a variation of the venerable
Winchester 94 lever action first introduced on January 1, 1895. In some
variations, it holds 9 rounds of 2 1/2" shells in a very long tubular
magazine, but the overall length is not conducive to easy handling in a home
as compared with the overall length of either the Saiga or the Mossberg HS410.
The 9410 is not chambered for the 3" Magnum .410 shell. Loading a
tubular magazine is slower than simply changing magazines as with the Saiga,
and it costs more than the Saiga. Nevertheless, there are those who love
lever actions and they do combine fast firing with sufficient weight to keep
recoil very low. Saiga shotguns are imported by
RWC Group LLC. Your local
dealer can order from RWC.
The Marlin Model 1895 Lever-Action .410 Shotgun was made for
Cabela's and is only available
from Cabela's. The Marlin lever action .410 does not have a full
length magazine and is chambered for 2 1/2" .410's, but it is
still very useful.
NOTE: The excellent SAIGA .410 is not currently available
but should be imported again soon. Eric Holder, the
current Attorney General of the United States, apparently
detests the 2nd Amendment. Trying to apply new definitions
to "sporting use," anti-American Holder, through his Just Us
Department's control of the Bureau of Alcohol, Firearms, etc,
directed the BATF to decide on how many, what type, etc of
shotguns should be prohibited. Holder was simply
unfamiliar with existing law - which is certainly no surprise.
Anticipating Holder's actions, House Republicans snuck a
provision into his 2012 appropriations bill prohibiting any such
little noticed provision tucked into a large appropriations bill
obviously flew under the radar of the “Brady Bunch” and the
"The new law effectively kills ATF’s plan to stop tactical/military
shotgun imports by way of abusing the “sporting purpose”
requirement and their agency rulemaking powers.
"The “Fiscal Year 2012 Agriculture, Commerce/Justice/Science (CJS)
and Transportation/Housing/Urban Development (THUD) Appropriations bills”,
also known as the “Mini-Bus”, was passed by Congress, and signed
into law by President Obama on November 18, 2011.
The new law reads as follows:
SEC. 541. None of the funds made available by this Act may be used
to pay the salaries or expenses of personnel to deny, or fail to act on,
an application for the importation of any model of shotgun if–
(1) all other requirements of law with respect to the proposed
importation are met; and
(2) no application for the importation of such model of shotgun, in
the same configuration, had been denied by the Attorney General prior to
January 1, 2011, on the basis that the shotgun was not particularly
suitable for or readily adaptable to sporting purposes.
"This new law became necessary due to the ATF releasing on January 27,
2011, a “Study
on the Importability of Certain Shotguns.” The “Study” argued
“military shotguns, or shotguns with common military features that are
unsuitable for traditional shotgun sports” should be banned from import
into the U.S.
"The ban would have applied to all shotguns including semi-autos,
pump-actions, double barrels, etc. As part of the rulemaking process,
comments from the public on the study were allowed to be submitted until May
One lonely .410 shotgun will not suffice as complete home defense against
a determined band armed with 7.62 x 39 mm AK-47's. But that is not the issue here.
Mossberg HS410 or the Saiga .410 will provide deterrence against such
attacks, and time is always on your side in any conflict: given resistance,
most attackers will give up and go on to easier pickings. Against a lesser
attack, either shotgun should
be equal to the task at hand, and far better than nothing at all.
If you already have a good selection of home defense weapons, make sure you
can reload for all of them. Ammo will make great barter stock in the future.
My booklet, "Survival Reloading," includes reloading data for just
about any cartridge (not shot shells) you would ever encounter, using hand tools or bench tools,
and with only three different smokeless powders, so you can stockpile
and be covered with whatever comes your way.
DON'T DO THIS! Respect your OWN privacy and keep
off any government lists. Why invite trouble?
Saturday, May 09, 2009
Next step? No guns allowed for right-wing 'extremists'
Bill empowers attorney general to forbid firearms for those 'suspected
By Drew Zahn
Rep. Peter King, R-N.Y.
A new gun law being considered in Congress, if aligned with Department
of Homeland Security memos labeling everyday Americans as potential
"threats," could potentially deny firearms to pro-lifers, gun-rights
advocates, tax protesters, animal rights activists, and a host of others
- any already on the expansive DHS watch list for potential "extremism."
Rep. Peter King, R-N.Y., has sponsored H.R. 2159, the Denying Firearms
and Explosives to Dangerous Terrorists Act of 2009, which permits the
attorney general to deny transfer of a firearm to any "known or
suspected dangerous terrorist." The bill requires only that the
potential firearm transferee is "appropriately suspected" of preparing
for a terrorist act and that the attorney general "has a reasonable
belief" that the gun might be used in connection with terrorism.
Gun rights advocates, however, object to the bill's language, arguing
that it enables the federal government to suspend a person's Second
Amendment rights without any trial or legal proof and only upon
suspicion of being "dangerous."
.410 BORE SHOT SHELL AMMO
Surprisingly, 3" .410 bore shot shells cost twice as much
as the much larger and more common 12 gauge shotgun shells, being priced at
over $10 per box
of 25. For the purpose of home defense, one does not need to have an armory
full of ammo, though. I would recommend at least four (4) boxes of 3" .410's
and four (4) boxes of 2 ½" .410 shells at a minimum, all with #4
shot. Those who think ahead would also have a simple reloading kit for .410 and
some reloading components as well.
Remember that I wrote above that one advantage of the .410 is a lack of penetration?
That can also be a disadvantage if you don’t know where to aim. Number 4 shot
is definitely not going to penetrate body armor, and many intruders now wear
such readily available equipment. One advantage of a shotgun that can be used
to offset that factor, however, is the very pattern that makes precise aiming
not so critical: shoot at the face. It is unprotected, and even a visor won’t
help much. At longer ranges even a few pellets in the cheeks will discourage
a determined opponent, ‘cause it hurts, and they will know you are as intent
on hurting them as much as they are intent on hurting you. Turnabout is fair
play! "Aim" with a shotgun means looking down the barrel and seeing
the front sight...there usually isn’t a rear sight. The target is placed on
top of the sight for the pellet pattern to strike correctly on bird sized
game. On larger game, such as a feral dog, aim at the bottom of the body and
the shot pattern should be in the chest area. If shooting at longer ranges,
remember that small sized shot lacks mass and being circular has a poor ballistic
coefficient, so it drops about 8 inches from line of sight at about 50 yards,
so aim a little higher on the target at longer ranges.
HANDGUNS FOR SELF DEFENSE
The great debate regarding handguns for self defense
usually comes down to the subjective issue of "stopping power." I used
the word "subjective" deliberately. There are those who cite military
experiments (Gen. Hatcher) as "proving" that only .45 caliber handgun bullets
as having acceptable stopping power usually do not mention that the bullets
used were "hardball," non expanding round nose bullets conforming to the
Geneva Convention guidelines. A 185 grain, .452" round nose bullet fired
from a 1911 Colt in .45 ACP does not "cut" a .45" hole in the "target," but
rather punctures a .45" hole because of the round nose. And in many
cases that non expanding bullet has too much penetration for home defense, so
it does not transfer all of its energy to the first "target." Often
there is sufficient penetration to go through a wall behind the first target
and endanger an innocent. The trick, then, is to obtain at least .45"
expansion with full transfer of deliverable energy within the body of the
first "target," with no excessive penetration.
Sufficient "stopping power" for home defense can be
obtained with a 0.357" bullet if it is properly chosen and reloaded to
acceptable velocities. The photo above shows the results of tests using
a Speer .357" hollow base wadcutter - loaded backwards - with the full huge
hollowpoint exposed. At the extreme left above is a .38 S&W cartridge
with a Speer 38 HBWC loaded backwards, and at right is a .38 Special with the
same bullet. The load was 3.0 grains of Red Dot, for a "real world"
velocity of over 820 fps in a 3" barrel. Recoil was extremely mild and
the load is suitable even for old top-break .38 S&W's.
Bullet #1 was loaded with the hollow base down, as
normal. Penetration was far too great and there was no expansion.
This loading is unacceptable for home defense.
Bullet #2 was loaded backward, but the bullet hit
solid bone. There was no "fluid" to effect an opening of the hollow
cavity, so the cavity collapsed and the bullet nose "self forged" into a spire
point. Expansion was to 0.625" with very sharp cutting edges, and
penetration was not excessive.
Bullet #3 was loaded backward and fired into fluid
with no solid object hit (a "gut shot"). Hydraulic effect in the hollow
cavity resulted in expansion to 0.694", and penetration was 6". The
hydrostatic shock of this bullet is incredible, and there was full transfer of
200 ft. lbs of energy within 6" of bullet impact travel.
Bullet #4 was loaded backward and first hit soft
tissue and fluid, then hit hard bone. The hydraulic effect opened the
hollow cavity which was then further expanded by contact with a hard object.
Expansion was to 0.800" with sharp cutting edges. This is almost twice
the diameter of a .45 ACP bullet - and the sharp edges combined with the
rotational aspect imparted by the rifling had a cutting power not possible
with a non expanding round nose 0.452" bullet at the same velocity.
Properly loaded, even an ancient top break .38 S&W has
adequate "stopping power" for home defense. "Properly loaded" includes
overall cartridge length. There is no ogive on the full-diameter hollow
base wadcutter loaded backwards, but revolver chambers have a "step" in the
forward portion of the cylinder for the bullet. The bullets must be
seated deeply enough to slightly enter the chamber fully without resistance.
As individual handguns have different specifications for chamber dimensions,
the loaded cartridges must be tried in each chamber to obtain the correct
seating depth. That is why the seating depth of the bullets in the
cartridges shown above is not the same.
Loaded into a .38 Special case to velocities exceeding 950
fps, expansion of the backwards-loaded hollow base wadcutter is spectacular,
often resulting in considerable bullet fragmentation. For home defense,
however, the higher velocity is not needed, as it results in considerably
higher recoil and noise, neither of which is desirable when fired from a small
handgun fired in the confines of a closed room.
The lowly .22 LR rimfire for home defense.
Much maligned as a defensive weapon, the little .22 rimfire
has done more damage to bad guys than perhaps all other calibers combined.
The .22 LR is a killer. It is not a one-shot man-stopper.
Nevertheless there is much to recommend the .22.
Ammo in .22 LR is so cheap that virtually anyone can
practice frequently and become a reliable shot with either a .22 handgun or
rifle. Practice does make perfect. Someone well acquainted with a
.22 LR would undoubtedly have a better chance at actually hitting perps than
someone who owned a cannon and rarely, if ever, fired a round through it.
Another aspect of home defense is that of "sound and fury"
shooting. Nobody likes to get shot at. And no one would choose a
single-shot .22 LR for home defense. With a very reliable and
inexpensive rifle like the Ruger Mini 14 and readily-available 25 round
magazines, an incredible amount of lead can be sent downrange to keep anyone
off balance and decide there were easier "pickings" elsewhere. And if
the perps did not retreat, a whole bunch of .222" diameter holes in a body is
major disappointment to perps and does result in bad things happening to them.
One shot stopper? No. Five or more rounds quickly? Not bad!
A typical 45 ACP bullet weighs 185 grains. Five rounds of CCI Segmented
Sub-Sonic bullets weigh 185 grains.
|At left, a Ruger 10/22 in .22 LR with a 25
The Ruger 10/22 Carbine has a slender barrel and a
reputation by some for inaccuracy. Fine. It is not a target rifle.
At reasonable ranges, say under 100 yards, the 10/22 certainly has sufficient
accuracy to justify a scope, and at man-sized targets it is then adequate to
well over 100 yards. Paper targets are small and they don't fight back.
To practice with the 10/22 for home defense any ammo can be used. For
home defense I prefer CCI Segmented Sub-Sonic ammo. To recover bullets
for analysis, the target was taped to a large cardboard
box and the box filled with tightly folded newspaper.
Look at the photo below: the bullets all expanded and had sharp cutting
edges...and 25 of those bullets can be fired as quickly as the rifle is aimed
and the trigger pulled. With three or four spare magazines, over a
hundred rounds can be send downrange in a very short period of time.
On the right side of the photo is an illustration of just
how well a 10/22 will do at a reasonable range - that lump is
two bullets which fused together after going through the
same hole in the target!
At left is a Walther P22 semi-auto .22
LR. This one has the 5" barrel and an M-16 flash hider added.
This combination is fairly quiet, very accurate, and the muzzle flash
when fired in a dark room is not blinding to the shooter, but is
blinding to the perp at the other end. The flash hider also
conceals the caliber from the perp - they have no way of knowing if you
are holding a .22 or a .45! Add a couple of spare magazines and 21
rounds can go downrange very quickly.
Links to more information:
RELOADING .410 BORE SHOT SHELLS
"HOMELAND SECURITY" RELOADING,
by John Derby
SURVIVAL RELOADING BY MILES STAIR